Exploring educational attainment by immigrant background: An analysis of PISA data in six OECD countries
This paper aims to show the variation
in 2015 PISA reading scores in six OECD countries based on immigrant
generation. OLS regression models for each country are used to consider
self-selection into migration by parents and their human capital and ultimately
predict reading scores of their descendants compared to ancestral natives.
Particular attention is paid to national origins of immigrants in Australia and
Austria to determine whether segmented assimilation is apparent. Additionally,
there is in depth analysis of the 2.5 generation and how this group operates
compared to both the natives and the mono-national second generation. Moreover,
comparison between the parental composition of this 2.5 generation, native
fathers versus native mothers is undertaken.
Results indicate that there is a gap between immigrant children and natives in non-Anglo-speaking countries. Positive self-selection, linguistics and stringent migration policies offer an explanation as to why these positive and negative gaps appear across the countries. Segmented assimilation is also identified with diverging trajectories based on different origin groups in both Austria and Australia. Within the 2.5 generation native fathers are more important than native mothers and this combination offers some form of buffering to avoid second generation disadvantage in certain destinations.