Patterns in COVID-19 Mortality and Morbidity in Sweden during the Pandemic Year March 2020-February 2021
preprintposted on 08.11.2021, 12:14 by Gunnar AnderssonGunnar Andersson, Sven DrefahlSven Drefahl, Eleonora MussinoEleonora Mussino, Karin Modig, Anna C. Meyer
Our report analyses the structure of COVID-19-related mortality and morbidity in Sweden during the period March 2020-February 2021. The analyses are carried out through Cox regressions and based on individual-level data from Swedish registers on causes of death, PCR tests, admissions to hospitals, and a wide range of socio-demographic and health-related background factors for the entire population of Sweden. Sweden had significantly elevated levels of mortality and morbidity during March-June 2020 and November 2020-January 2021. Excess mortality was highest among the oldest members of the population and among persons born abroad. COVID-19 mortality risks for people in many different population categories had much the same pattern as those for other mortality risks, but they deviated in pattern for the foreign-born and were remarkably high for older people in special housing. Excess mortality among the foreign-born was reduced in the second half of the pandemic year, while the risk of death for elderly people in care homes remained high in the second and third waves of the pandemic. The excess mortality and high risks of COVID-19-related morbidity among the foreign-born cannot be explained by socio-economic or structural conditions, by differences in underlying health, or by a clearly less favorable progression through the various stages of the health-care system.